DTA

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Tesi etd-05082018-092006

Type of thesis
Perfezionamento
Author
COCCINA, ANTONIO
URN
etd-05082018-092006
Title
AGRONOMIC BIOFORTIFICATION WITH IRON AND ZINC AND INOCULATION BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND NUTRACEUTICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT AND BARLEY
Scientific disciplinary sector
AGR/02
Course
SCIENZE AGRARIE E BIOTECNOLOGIE - Agrobiosciences
Committee
relatore ERCOLI, LAURA
Membro Prof.ssa MENSUALI, ANNA
Keywords
  • arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
  • bread
  • iron
  • nutraceutical
  • wheat
  • wheat flour
  • zinc
Exam session start date
;
Availability
parziale
Abstract
A poor daily intake and a scarce dietary diversity are the main reasons for the widespread incidence of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in humans, especially in the developing world (White and Broadley 2009). The major consequences of Zn deficiency are losses in brain function, weakening of the immune system and influences on physical growth (WHO 2002), while the major consequences of Fe deficiency are impairments of cognitive function, immune system and increases in infant mortality (Hunt 2005). In developing countries, where cereal-based foods represent the major daily caloric intake, Fe and Zn deficiencies result from the fact that cereal crops are grown in soils with low Zn and Fe availability and phytic acid in grain may limit Zn and Fe bioavailability (Alloway, 2004; Gibson et al., 2010). There are several potential strategies to increase the Fe and Zn concentrations in cereal crops, including conventional breeding and genetic engineering as well as agronomic biofortification and biofertilization (White and Broadley, 2009; Antunes et al., 2012). Agronomic biofortification of crops is considered the most cost-effective solution in the short term (Cakmak 2008; White and Broadley, 2009). With regard to Zn, foliar applications of Zn fertilizers on cereals resulted more effective than soil application in improving grain Zn concentration, but these results were based only on few field trials (Cakmak et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2010). Respect to Zn, soil and foliar applications with Fe resulted less effective in enriching Fe grain concentration (Rengel et al. 1999; Cakmak 2008; Zhang et al., 2010). By far, only one study has focused on the effects of foliar application of Zn and Fe on milling fractions of wheat grain (Zhang et al. 2010) and none have focused on wheat products. As regard AMF, despite several studies have reported their ability to increase plant Fe and Zn concentrations (Al-Karaki, 2000; Cavagnaro, 2008; Pellegrino and Bedini, 2014), the effectiveness of AMF field inoculation on agricultural products, such as cereals, is still not resolved (Antunes et al., 2012). As regard bread wheat, just few papers have studied the role of field AMF inoculation on Zn concentration in grain (+ 10%) (Al-Karaki et al., 2004; Daei et al., 2009), whereas no information is available on its effect on Fe concentration in bread wheat grain. Actually, there is growing evidence of the huge variability of health-promoting compounds (i.e. polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids) in old and modern genotypes of bread wheat (Di Silvestro et al., 2012). In addition, although the α-lipoic acid has a powerful antioxidant effect against cardiovascular disease (Packer at al., 1995; Wollin and Jones, 2003), its presence in grain was investigated only in durum wheat by Vianey-Liaud et al. (1994). Therefore, the study of the agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn and of the inoculation by AMF on the nutritive and nutraceutical properties of wheat and its products is a cutting edge issue in the field of crop science. <br><br>Project aims<br>The main objective of the research project is to study the effect of the agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn and field inoculation by AMF on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The specifics aim of the research project are:<br>1. To study the effect of agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn on grain yield and nutritional and nutraceutical properties of flour and bread of old and modern genotypes of bread wheat;<br>2. To study the variability in the response to AMF and biofortification of common wheat genotypes on Fe and Zn concentration in grain <br>3. To estimate the contribution of mycorrhizal pathway uptake (MPU) to Zn uptake and translocation in grain wheat and barley wheat, using 65Zn as a tracer. The measurements of 65Zn will allow the quantification of Zn uptake and translocation to grain by the hyphal network.<br>
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